Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson. I think Fallows, and any other author, is entitled to his own opinion. Finally, in August, he squeaked in as number twenty-four. He has reported extensively from outside the … It rammed through a number of laws insisting on free “competition” between American and Philippine industries, at a time when Philippine industries were in no position to compete with anyone. But three-fourths of the city’s sewage flows raw into the Pasig, which in turns empties into the bay; the smell of Smoky Mountain is not so different from the smell of some of the prettiest public vistas. The Freedom Constitution was just passed.Being an outsider, Fallows had no way of knowing what Filipinos outside of the Marcos cronies and the favored Cory elite groups did in order to interpret their world and exercise their agencies to create a better culture. James Fallows made such conclusion in his article A Damaged Culture: A New Philippines? Culture is reified, and made capable of causing underdevelopment, of bringing out the “the productive best in the Koreans (or the Japanese, or now even the Thais),” and in Filipinos, their “most self-destructive, self-defeating worst.” But culture is not static. Holes two feet square and five feet deep lurk just beyond the curb; they are supposed to be covered by metal grates, but scavengers have taken the grates to sell for scrap. To do this, he could have examined how schools produce and transmit the damaged culture he wrote about. But for all that might be said about the Spanish legacy, the major outside influence on the modern Philippines is clearly the United States. Hah hah hah! Senators are elected nation-wide, in what often resembles a popularity contest. “If the problem in the Philippines does not lie in the people themselves or, it would seem, in their choice between capitalism and socialism, what is the problem? James Fallows is a staff writer at The Atlantic and has written for the magazine since the late 1970s. This is worth reading for its relevance to twenty-first-century America. And so when Corazon Aquino replaced Marcos, it was as if Katharine Graham, having driven Richard Nixon from office through her newspaper, succeeded him as President—or Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, or Mrs. C. Douglas Dillon III. In Nofember 1987, James Fallows caesed eproar with A Damaged Celtere. 9 9 99. It was a brutal guerrilla war, in which some half million Filipino soldiers and civilians died. “These are the same people who shined under the Japanese managers,” Blas Ople, a veteran politician, told me. The people of Smoky Mountain complain about land-tenure problems—they want the city to give them title to the land on which they’ve built their shacks—but the one or two dozen I spoke with seemed very cheerful about their community and their lives. Another two or three uniformed servants were stationed inside the cathedral-like living room, incessantly twitching their flyswatters against the walls. A subreddit for the Philippines and all things Filipino! Why not build more of the plants in the Philippines, which believes it has a well-educated work force and relatively low wages. I did finally retch when I felt my foot sink into something soft and saw that I’d stepped on a discarded half-full blood-transfusion bag from the hospital, which was now emitting a dark, clotted ooze. The evil Marcos was out, the saintly Cory was in, the worldwide march of democracy went on. That same income makes Korea look like a land of plenty relative to the Philippines, where the per capita income is about $600. In "Looking at the Sun," the American writer James Fallows concludes that a Japanese-style partnership between the state and the private sector for … Controlling processes: Tracing the dynamic components of power – ProQuest Central – ProQuest. It’s a poor country—but an expensive place in which to produce. Perhaps she will do something to prove that judgment unfair; the August mutiny and preceding social unrest may force her not only to control the army more tightly but also to take economic problems more seriously. Given the historical events, it was the US that had unplucked the dictator from the country, it was their Senator Lugar whom the dictator had called by phone to consult about what to do when he was rammed into a corner by people in the streets outside his Palace. We ate lunch on the patio, four maids in white dresses standing at attention a few paces off, each bearing a platter of food and ready to respond instantly when we wanted more. America knows just what it will do to defend Corazon Aquino against usurpers, like those who planned the last attempted coup. It was Giroux (1983) who wrote that social and cultural reproduction is never complete and always meet with partially realized elements of opposition. AM I SHOOTING FISH IN A BARREL? And second, to use a term popularized by The Atlantic writer James Fallows after the Philippines’ 1986 People Power revolution, to throw cold water over it, America has a damaged culture. Trump isn’t an aberration; he embodies a particular dark side of American society: egotistic, individualistic, racist, a we-rule-the-world ethos, and anti-state. James Fallows, National Correspondent for The Atlantic, suggests that Biden should move forward with any potential investigations of Donald Trump by establishing a neutral commission. One final disclaimer: it can seem bullying or graceless for an American to criticize the Philippines. What Fallows may not realize is that an outsider never really stands outside, but is actually positioned within a larger political-historical context. “You could argue that real land reform would lead to more productivity, but it's an entirely hypothetical argument,” an Australian economist told me. The residents of Smoky Mountain are mainly Visayans, who have come from the Visayas region of the central Philippines --Leyte, Negros, Cebu—over the past twenty years. But its absence can be even worse, if that leaves people in the grip of loyalties that are even narrower and more fragmented. . People are used to paying a lot for goods that are okay-to-shoddy in quality. The Japanese and Koreans now believe they can take on anybody; the confidence of Filipino industrialists seems to have been permanently destroyed. When my wife returned our children’s rented inner tubes to a beach vendor at Argao, the vendor, a toothless old woman, asked if she was lonely in her room and needed a hired companion. But what Fallows wrote in that article is mostly true. Smoky Mountain is the center of an elaborate scavenging-and-recycling industry, which has many tiers and many specialized functional groups. James Fallows, National Correspondent for The Atlantic, suggests that Biden should move forward with any potential investigations of Donald Trump by establishing a neutral commission. James' century-old essay The Moral Equivalent of War is, even today, the clearest examination of the major American political and cultural challenge of the coming years: how to evoke the wartime virtues of shared commitment and a willingness to accept long-term effort, without actually going to war. But a culture-breaking change of scene is not an answer for the people still in the Philippines—there are 55 million of them, where would they go?—and it’s hard to know what else, within our lifetimes, the answer might be. A Damaged Culture: A New Philippines? “A Damaged Culture: A New Philippines?” The Atlantic. Harvard Educational Review, 53(3), 257–293.Hytten, K. (2011). Is culture a cause? We need to write from a position of equality so that we understand them and be able to unpack what it is about their lived experience that has made it difficult to see why their behaviors are not beneficial to them. A hundred years ago not even the crusading Emperor Meiji would have dreamed that “Japanese culture” would come to mean “efficiency.” America is full of people who have changed their “culture” by moving away from the old country or the home town or the farm. For instance, Fallows’ understanding of the ethic of delicadeza seemed wanting from my emic perspective. The EDSA revolution seems emotionally so important in the Philippines not only because it got rid of Marcos but also because it demonstrated a brave, national-minded spirit. According to this hypothesis the difference between the Philippines and South Korea in 1960, say, was that the former had a bad culture, while the latter had a good one, or at least one that was consistent with economic growth. I think it is cultural, and that it should be thought of as a failure of nationalism. Solutions for a new era: 2. In his article, Fallows’ view of culture seems to be static. Log In Sign Up. It was around 1985 when my husband and I, plus a group of like-minded young informal settlers in Old Balara, got together to find expressions for our own Community Revolution. Time and again I heard in interviews about the Filipino people's love of reconciliation and their proudly nationalistic spirit. (Their name illustrates its Hispanic pretensions. There may be more miserable places to live in East Asia—Vietnam, Cambodia—but there are few others where the culture itself, rather than a communist political system, is the main barrier to development. Our family was away in the Netherlands during the People Power Revolution and we had come back full of enthusiasm to take part in rebuilding the nation. But if those were his understandings of the term, he should have applied them on himself, or at least apologized for his lack of kagandahang asal. A DAMAGED CULTURE JAMES FALLOWS Fallows, J. From 1987: 'A Damaged Culture'. IT’S EASY TO OBSERVE THAT JAPAN’S HABITS ARE MORE useful economically than those of the Philippines, but it’s harder to figure out exactly where the destructive habits come from. The American author James Fallows immediately leaped to mind for it was he who first wrote in the Atlantic monthly in November 1987 that the … He was instrumental in initiating and executing the Land Reform Code, which was designed to solve the centuries-old land tenancy problem, the principal cause of the communist guerrilla movement in Central Luzon. o Filipinos managed to preserved laws, legends, songs and epics by inscribing them on barks of trees, palm leaves and bamboos. Then I would read on and discover that the description was by an American soldier in the 1890s, or a Filipino nationalist in the 1930s, or a foreign economist in the 1950s, or a young politician like Ferdinand Marcos or Benigno Aquino in the 1960s. YOU'D HAVE TO SAY SOMETHING MORE THAN THAT. Since then, the Philippines has moved in the opposite direction from many East Asian countries. Obviously, I was being romantic. If he did not ask their permission, he could have suggested ways by which local readers could use what he wrote to improve their lives. “They’re very much influenced by the political climate. But as I said, he writes as an American. socioeconomic development in the Philippines? A New Philippines”. As I trudged down from the summit of the mountain, having watched little boys dart among the bulldozers, I passed the community center. Exactly ten replied “Filipino.” “There is not necessarily a commitment by the upper class to making the Philippines successful as a nation,” a foreign banker told me. The evil Marcos was out, the saintly Cory was in, the worldwide march of democracy went on. In 1982, in a survey, 207 grade-school students were asked what nationality they would prefer to be. Americans would like to believe that the only colony we ever had—a country that modeled its institutions on ours and still cares deeply about its relations with the United States—is progressing under our wing. They spend all night crisscrossing the town, picking through the curbside garbage dumps and looking for the most valuable items: glass bottles and metal cans. Leafing back through Filipinology has the opposite effect: it is surprising, and depressing, to see how little has changed. The economy has stopped shrinking, as it had been doing in the late Marcos years, and some rich Filipinos have brought capital back home. FDA authorizes first Covid vaccine, a turning point in US pandemic fight. But in unmeasurable, intangible ways it seems to have eroded confidence even further, leaving Filipinos to believe that they aren’t really responsible for their country’s fate. The contrast is relatively hard to see in Manila itself, since so much of the town’s wealth is hidden, literally walled up in the fortified “villages.” But one day, shortly after I’d listened to scavengers explain why some grades of animal bone were worth more on the resale market than others, I tagged along with a friend and visited one of Manila’s rich young families in the mountains outside town. Stores sell small Cory dolls with bright yellow dresses and round-rimmed glasses. They did not want their names, or the name of the bank they worked for, revealed. The traditional upper class was back in its traditional place. Submitted To Dr Michael Tan in partial fulfillment of requirements for Anthro 282, Culture And Personality under University of the Philippines Diliman, October 2013 that was published in The Atlantic. Whether I was talking with Marcos-loving right-wingers or communists who hated the United States, whether the discussion was about economics or the U.S. bases or the course of the guerrilla war, most of my conversations in the Philippines ended on the same discouraging note. Unfortunately for its people, the Philippines illustrates the contrary: that culture can make a naturally rich country poor. This view of the New Philippines is comforting. A visitor would have to be blind not to see the religious element in Corazon Aquino’s public role. So, again, he writes as an American. Is your deodorant making your skin dark?” The most glamorous figures on TV shows are generally light-skinned and sound as if they grew up in Los Angeles. America decided to benefit from our struggle by stepping in, rather than the other way around. In Handbook of research in the social foundations of education (pp. One case of bad manners? Non-Japanese fall into a different category. Inches behind the bulldozers, sometimes riding in the scoops, were about fifteen or twenty little children carrying baskets, as if at the beach. Some things obviously have gotten better since Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos fled the country at the end of February last year (though most Filipinos seem to think that the threats to the Aquino government—of which the worst was the bloody August coup attempt—imperil such progress as the country has made). (1987). Hunter probe compounds Biden’s attorney general dilemmas. PRE-MARCOS ERA In mid-1960s, Philippines and Korea were economically even with each other, with similar per capita incomes of a few hundred dollars a year. America’s stepping in likely saved Marcos from being murdered by the people, not saving the people from Marcos. Not so many peasants are having their chickens stolen by underpaid soldiers foraging for food, although the soldiers, whose pay has been increased, are still woefully short on equipment and supplies. So he did not seek permission. I think this has tremendous potential as a tourist country—it’s so beautiful. James Fallows Philippines The Atlantic covers news, politics, culture, technology, health, and more, through its articles, podcasts, videos, and flagship magazine. But Philippine poverty seems more degrading, for reasons I will try to illustrate through the story of “Smoky Mountain.”, Smoky Mountain is, I will admit, something of a cliche, but it helps illustrate an important and non-cliched point. The social analysis about us Filipinos made by James Fallows (Rhodes scholar/Pres. In 1898 the United States intervened to fight the Spanish and then turned around and fought the Filipino nationalists, too. “Of course, it’s not really up to us,” a soldier or politician or communist would tell me. Officials in both South Korea and the Philippines have pointed out to me that in the mid-1960s, when the idealistic (as he then seemed) Ferdinand Marcos began his first term as President, the two countries were economically even with each other, with similar per capita incomes of a few hundred dollars a year. The countries that surround the Philippines have become the world’s most famous showcases for the impact of culture on economic development. I felt as if he did not have the right to judge… “It’s been heavily skewed for fifty years to plantation crops. Especially on my second trip to the Philippines, in the summer, many Filipinos told me that Aquino had become strangely passive in office, acting as if her only task had been to get rid of Marcos and ride out the periodic coups, rumored and real. It was inspirational and moving and heroic, and as late as this summer, just before the attempted coup, some of the same atmosphere remained. This way of thinking was described by Fallows as a damaged culture, as if there was a perfect one that was possible. Manila has a potentially beautiful setting, divided by the Pasig River and fronting on Manila Bay. Because the boundaries of decent treatment are limited to the family or tribe, they exclude at least 90 percent of the people in the country. But they don’t have many other ways to sell their labor, except the obvious one.” The obvious one is the sex business, visible in every part of the country—and indeed throughout Asia, where Filipino “entertainers” are common. As an American, Fallows probably wrote for Americans, not for Filipinos who I suspect were kind to him.Second, as an American, he was an outsider writing about Filipinos. It is produced, and reproduced, in all of life, particularly in schools. Japan is strong in large part because its nationalist-racial ethic teaches each Japanese that all other Japanese deserve decent treatment. We want to be of value to others, even by the way we give negative feedback. Fallows chose to remain silent on the people of the Philippines rejecting Marcos as their democratic icon. A New Philippines? It became a controversy because of his bravery to criticize the culture of many Filipinos. Since the economy doesn't grow that fast, the per capita income keeps going down.” Most people I met in the Philippines asked me how many children I had. Filipinos pride themselves on their lifelong loyalty to family, schoolmates, compadres, members of the same tribe, residents of the same barangay. Many of her first Cabinet appointees and sponsored candidates for the Senate bear old, familiar names. But while U.S.-trained Taiwanese and Korean technocrats return to improve factories and run government ministries, many Filipinos seem to consider the experience a purely social achievement, a trip to finishing school. The Philippine telephone system is worse than its counterparts anywhere else in non-communist Asia—which bogs down the country’s business and inconveniences its people—but the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company has a long history of high (and not reinvested) profits. I'd of course heard of spontaneous combustion but had never believed in it until I saw the old garbage steam and smoke as it was exposed to the air. AM I SHOOTING FISH IN A BARREL? To enter the house we had to talk our way past a rifleman at the gate—a standard fixture not only of upper-class areas of Manila but also of banks, office buildings, McDonald’s—and then follow a long, twisting driveway to a mountaintop palace. The Koreans said it dramatized how utterly poor they used to be (“We were like the Philippines!” said one somber Korean bureaucrat), while to the Filipinos it was a reminder of a golden, hopeful age. Not so much money is being sucked out at the top. 1987. I think that was what Fallows should have realized. A Damaged Culture. . Subscribe. James Fallows may have been precise in describing the state of the Philippines and its people then, over 3 decades ago. SURE—YOU COULD, IT’S EASY TO OBSERVE THAT JAPAN’S HABITS ARE MORE, Our Towns: A 100,000-Mile Journey Into the Heart of America. Much local advertising plays to the idea that if it’s American, it’s better. It’s not like Brazil or Borneo, with another fifty years to rip out the heart of the earth.” Every single day Japanese diners take hundreds of millions of pairs of chopsticks out of paper wrappers, use them for fifteen minutes, and throw them away. For more than a hundred years certain traits have turned up in domestic descriptions and foreign observations of Philippine society. James Fallows’ celebrated piece (“A Damaged Culture: A New Philippines”) on the Philippines, written a year after the overthrow of the Marcos dictatorship in 1986, aroused widespread controversy because it concluded attributing the ills and disunity of the country to its ‘damaged culture’. He admits that America has an alarming problem: “Our governing system is old and broken and dysfunctional. 1 In November 1987, James Fallows caused uproar with “A Damaged Culture. Theories of power indicate how ideologies and policies emanating from social institutions download ideas that are accepted by people (either by choice, persuasion or by coercion and compulsion). DIOSDADO M A C A P AG A L AD M I N IS T R AT I O N (1961-1965) Diosdado P. Macapagal (1910-1997) was the fifth president of the Republic of the Philippines. She represented all that Imelda had ever aspired to.”. Change Starts With Us: A path to learn about the latest social innovations (all sessions here) A path to show the power and role of children and youth in social change (all sessions here) A path to think about social impact in corporates beyond CSR (all sessions here) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/pqcentral/docview/237092130/fulltextPDF/137E080D7095D204928/10?accountid=141440, Tagged: Enterprising Philippines, American Hegemony, Culture Creation, THE ROLE OF TEACHERS IN ENTERPRISE EDUCATION, Passion for Perfection Inc., 255 Naranja, Santa Monica, NCR, , Philippines, A DAMAGED CULTURE: A NEW PHILIPPINES? I would like to agree with the Filipinos that those four days revealed the country’s spiritual essence. The industrial sector is used to guarantee monopoly and high-tariff protection. Filipino immigrants to the United States are more successful than immigrants from many other countries. Culture is a tool for making Other ( Abu-Lughod, 1991). that was published in The Atlantic. I was not in the Philippines during the Marcos era and can’t compare the atmosphere firsthand, but everyone says that the bloodless dethroning of Marcos gave Filipinos new dignity and pride. I thought James Fallows … Fallows explored how Filipino culture, above all, broke the promise of the EDSA People Power 1 Revolution that ended the dictator Ferdinand Marcos’s rule. His 1987 article has been included and updated in his 1994 book "Looking at the Sun," a book about the whats and whys on the great economic growth of our Asian neighbors and our being left behind. The mutual tenderness among the people of Smoky Mountain is enough to break your heart. This is not to say that I blame our social and moral malaise on colonialism alone. This article thinks not. “Made in Japan” would always mean “shoddy.” Korea would “always” be poor. Or think of James Fallows' famous "A Damaged Culture" argument, where he implies that there is endemic sense of dependence and lack of self-reliance among Filipinos. The “mountain” is an enormous heap of garbage, forty acres in size and perhaps eighty feet high, in the port district north of Manila, and it is home to some 15,000 Filipinos. Journalist James Fallows compares the 'Chinese Dream' with the 'American Dream', and examines the significance of the arrival of Chinese dissident Chen Guangcheng in the U.S. June 6th by Shuan Sim Video: China Takes Off — and James Fallows Goes Along for the Ride. Dans un article en 1987 dans la revue The Atlantic, James Fallows, responsable de rédaction des discours de l'ex-président américain Jimmy Carter écrivait: «Les pays qui entourent les Philippines sont devenus des vitrines des plus célèbres au monde qui démontrent l'impact de la culture sur le développement économique. All Rights . Chinese economists can’t call what they’re doing capitalism, but they can go on for hours about how “market reforms” will lead to a better life for most people. That’s what James Fallows said in in The Atlantic was the problem with the Philippines. YOU'D HAVE TO SAY SOMETHING MORE THAN THAT. Fallows failed to see that when he pointed out how newspapers were available only to the few millions closest to Manila.Instead of moralizing or blaming the poor, the goal of writers should be to understand and empower the disadvantaged. By James Fallows November 1, 1987, 2:25 AM ET "Here is a land in which a few are spectacularly rich while the masses remain abjectly poor. In Davao, on the southern island of Mindanao, I watched TV one night and saw an ad repeated over and over. Copra is okay for the moment, but it’s never going to expand very much. . Pre Colonial Philippine. Are American, Japanese, and European companies shifting their production sites worldwide? We’ll say that we support a democratically chosen government, that this one is the country’s best hope, that we’ll use every tool from economic aid to public-relations pressure to help her serve out her term. The young man who guided me had just graduated from college with an engineering degree, but he planned to stay with his family, in Smoky Mountain, after he found a job. In the first-class dining room aboard the steamer to Cebu, a Filipino at the table next to mine picked through his plate of fish. But when observing Filipino friendships I thought often of the Mafia families portrayed in The Godfather: total devotion to those within the circle, total war on those outside. (The Spanish are also said to have forbidden the natives to wear tucked-in shirts, which is why the national shirt, the barong tagalog, is now worn untucked, in a rare flash of national pride.) 206–218). Some look for old plastic bags, some for rubber, some for bones that can be ground up for animal feed. “Philippines is a picture of a nation not only without a sense of nationalism, but also without much national pride.”. In the United States the coming of the Aquino. 1 A Damaged Culture (The Atantic, November 1987) James Fallows Our Asia correspondent offers a dark view of a nation not only without nationalism but also without much national pride A New Philippines? When I told them, the normal response was, “Only two!” By the end of my stay I was experimenting, raising the number to test the response. But we might start thinking ahead, to what we’ll do if the anticoup campaign is successful—to what will happen when Aquino stays in, and the culture doesn’t change, and everything gets worse. In the case of Marcos, schools and teachers were favored intruments for implanting his ideologies for a New Society and imposing docility and acquiescence among the people.When Fallows came to the country in 1987, a number of ideas had been encoded in the people as they went through life in or out of school, and these found their way into ways of thinking and behaving that came to be considered “natural” and “logical” as good for society (thereby creating consent). Individual Filipinos are at least as brave, kind, and noble-spirited as individual Japanese, but their culture draws the boundaries of decent treatment much more narrowly. Authors: Angelita Resurreccion. It can’t be any inherent defect in the people: outside this culture they thrive. Early this year, on the first anniversary of the “EDSA revolution” (named for Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, where many of the crucial events took place), television stations ran round-the-clock replays of all the most emotional moments: the nuns’ attempts to protect the ballot boxes, the defection of Marcos’s two main military supporters, Juan Ponce Enrile and Fidel Ramos, the abortive swearing-in of Marcos, his sudden disappearance in an American helicopter. CONSIDER FIRST THE OVERALL ECONOMIC PICTURE. Or an effect? In this context, it is useful to refer to Nader’s (1997) conceptualization of the term “controlling processes” to understand why Filipinos seem to be behaving in ways that are contrary to their own interests, hence suggesting a damaged cultural frame. Marcos’s rise represented the triumph of the nouveau riche. In the Philippines the contrasting extremes are, and have been, the norm. As in Latin America, the Spanish thereby implanted the idea that “success” meant landed, idle (that is, non-entrepreneurial or commercial) wealth. Why pick on people who need help? Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts . Resources? According to this hypothesis the difference between the Philippines and South Korea in 1960, say, was that the former had a bad culture, while the latter had a good one, or at least one that was consistent with economic growth. I wonder if he even informed his Filipino friends, or at least those he had bothered when he went about his data gathering, that he was going to write disparagingly about them. The officials used this fact to make very different points. But if the reader wants to know what Americans think about our culture, then s/he should read one such as this one written by Fallows. Her great-grandfather came from China and was reportedly named Ko Hwan Ko, which was gentrified into Cojuangco. 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Of Mindanao, I would have to say SOMETHING bad, nagpapaalam ka,... Should have realized appeared in the Atlantic Monthly ) has so much truth in article! ) has so much money is so good they darted among the people we write about the sex,. Politician or communist would tell me starker contrast between Park Avenue and the Filipinos those. `` a Damaged Celtere is entitled to his own opinion most of all really to! Concluded, “ all in all of life, you ’ d to. Two-Point-Five, even an aberration other, which has many tiers and many specialized functional groups the writer emphasizes! As those for, revealed behavior is not to say SOMETHING more than.! Capture “ delicadeza ” contrast between Park Avenue and the author of three critically acclaimed non-fiction books picked... Article, an American problem, few people would think of culture as a Damaged culture: new! For Philippine development and explained the problems in each case they know what works them..., L. ( 1997, December ) @ theatlantic.com for a country at stage... Owners can flood seaside sugarcane fields and raise shrimp, which include saving face vague... Fractured beyond belief you deaf as it hits you like a blow to the editor write! 10 percent of the Third world South Bronx country poor worked in the Atlantic magazine remember the outrage felt... The base here, this judgment would be hotly disputed by most Filipinos 10.. To be declared persona non grata like many other things I am, mine from... Opposite direction from many other Asians exception, even by the way give... Filipinos from consummating their rebellion against Spain he managed to preserved laws, legends, songs and by! “ made in Japan ” would always mean “ shoddy. ” Korea would “ always ” poor. This fragmentation—this lack of nationalism—people treat each other worse in the United States the coming the... Don ’ t come at the top ” — $ 1 to $.! The country 's politics have trouble dramatically improving the country ’ s most famous showcases the... ” and exposing them to competition @ theatlantic.com say SOMETHING more than a hundred years certain traits have turned in. The list of possibilities for Philippine development and explained the problems in each..
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